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Vision Therapy Research

Only patients in the vision therapy/orthoptics group demonstrated statistically and clinically significant changes in the near point of convergence and positive fusional vergence at near. Patients in all three treatment arms demonstrated statistically significant improvement in symptoms with 42% in office-based vision therapy/orthoptics, 31% in office-based placebo vision therapy/orthoptics, and 20% in home-based pencil pushups achieving a score <21 (our predetermined criteria for elimination of symptoms) at the 12-week visit.

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Additional Studies on Vision Therapy, Behavioural Optometry, & Neuroplasticity


Maino, D. (2010) Editorial: The Binocular Vision Dysfunction Pandemic: Optometry and Vision Development. 41(1): 6-13.

Montes-Micro, R. (2001) Prevalence of General Dysfunctions in Binocular Vision: Annals of Opthalmology. 33(3): 205-208.

Young B, Collier-Gorg K, Schwing S. (1994) Visual Factors – A Primary Cause of Failure in Beginning Reading: Journal of Vision Development. 32(1): 58-71.

Borsting, E et al. (2012)  Improvement in Academic Behaviors Following Successful Treatment of Convergence Insufficiency. Optom Vis Sci. January ; 89(1): 12–18.


Pearce KL, Sufrinko A, Lau BC, Henry L, Collins MW, Kontos AP.  Near point of convergence after a sport-related concussion: measurement reliability and relationship to neurocognitive impairment and symptoms.  Am J Sports Med. 2015 Dec;43(12):3055-61.


Gallaway M, Scheiman M, Mitchell GL. Vision therapy for post-concussion vision disorders. Optom Vis Sci. 2017 Jan;94(1):68-73.

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Padula WV, Argyris S. Post trauma vision syndrome and visual midline shift syndrome. NeuroRehabilitation. 1996; 6(3):165-71.


CITT Study Group (2008). A Randomized Clinical Trial of Treatments for Symptomatic Convergence Insufficiency in Children. Archives of Ophthalmology. 126(10), 1336-1349.


Barnett BP, Singman EL; Vision concerns after mild traumatic brain injury. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2015 Feb; 17(2):329.


Ciuffreda KJ, et al.:Vision therapy for oculomotor dysfunctions in acquired brain injury: a retrospective analysis; Optometry. 2008 Jan;79(1):18-22.


Freed S, Hellerstein LF: Visual electrodiagnostic findings in mild traumatic brain injury; Brain Inj. 1997 Jan;11(1):25-26.


Hellerstein LF, Freed S, Maples WC.: Vision profile of patients with mild brain injury; J Am Optom Assoc. 1995;66(10):634-639.


Kapoor N, et al.: Vision Disturbances Following Traumatic Brain Injury; Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2002 Jul;4(4):271-280.


Magone MT, Kwon E, Shin SY; Chronic visual dysfunction after blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2014;51(1):71-80.


Marshall S, et al.: Updated clinical practice guidelaines for concussion/mild traumatic brain injury and persistent symptoms. Brain Inj. 2015:29(6):688-700.


Padula WV, et al.: Visual evoked potentials (VEP) evaluating treatment for post-trauma vision syndrome (PTVS) in patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI); Brain Inj. 1994 Feb-Mar;8(2): 125-33.

Padula WV, Munitz R & Megren WM: Neuro-Visual Processing Rehabilitation: An Interdisciplinary Approach; CRC Press 2013.


Sheiman M, et al: A randomized clinical trial of treatments for convergence insufficiency in children; Arch Ophthalmol. 2005 Jan;123(1):14-24.


Schlageter K et al.: incidence and treatment of visual dysfunction in traumatic brain injury; Brain Inj. 1993;7(5):439-448.


Suter, PS et al.: Visual Rehabilitation: Multidisciplinary Care of the Patient Following Brain Injury; CRC Press. 2011.


Swaine BR, Sullivan SJ: Longitudinal profile of early motor recovery following severe traumatic brain injury; Brain Inj. 1996 May;10(5):347-66.


Thiagarajan P et. Al.: Oculotmotor neurorehabilitation for reading in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI): an integrative approach; NeuroRehabilitation. 2014;34(1):129-46.


Wortzel HS et al: Subtle neurological signs predict the severity of subacute cognitive and functional impairments after traumatic brain injury; J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2009 Fall;21(4):463-6.


Yadav NK & Ciuffreda KJ; Effect of binasal occlusion (BNO) and base-in prisms on the visual-evoked potential (VEP) in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), Brain Inj, 2014; 28(12): 1568-1580. 

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